Ryan Dhindsa, M.D., Ph.D.

I am an NRI fellow and instructor at the Duncan Neurological Research Insistute, affiliated with Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital. I am also a consultant for AstraZeneca's Center for Genomic Research. My research focuses on the use of human genetics and functional genomics to understand disease mechanisms and identify targeted therapies. I received my M.D./Ph.D. from Columbia University, where I trained under Dr. David Goldstein at the Institute for Genomic Medicine

I am also the co-founder of
MedChances, a website that provides free medical school admissions predictions. I am originally a native of Reno, Nevada.


Education and work experience
2021 - Present

Baylor College of Medicine

Jan and Dan Duncan Neurological Research Institute & Department of Molecular and Human Genetics
NRI Fellow


Centre for Genomics Research
Assoc. Principal Scientist

Columbia University

Medical Scientist Training Program.
Laboratory of Dr. David Goldstein, Institute for Genomic Medicine
Thesis: Deciphering gene dysregulation in disease through population and functional genomics

Duke University

Center for Human Genome Variation
bachelor's degree


Google Scholar profile

[34] Codon affinity in mitochondrial DNA shapes evolutionary and somatic fitness
CA Lareau, Y Yin, JC Gutierrez, RS Dhindsa, A Gribling-Burrer, Y Hsieh, L Nitsch, FA Buquicchio, T Abay, S Zielinski, RR Stickels, JC Ulirsch, P Yan, F Wang, Z Miao, K Sandor, B Daniel, V Liu, Q Wang, F Hu, KR Smith, S Deevi, P Maschmeyer, S Petrovski, RP Smyth, WJ Greenleaf, A Kundaje, MMunschauer, S Ludwig,A Satpathy‍bioRxiv. (2023).

[33] Epilepsy in a mouse model of GNB1 Encephalopathy arises from altered potassium channel (GIRK) signaling and is alleviated by a GIRK inhibitor
S Colombo, HP Reddy, S Petri, DJ Williams, B Shalomov,  RS Dhindsa, S Gelfman, D Krizay, AK Bera, M Yang, Y Peng, C Makinson, MJ Boland, WN Frankel,  DB Goldstein, N Dascal. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. (2023).

[32] Studying ultra-rare variants in STX1A uncovers a novel neurodevelopmental disorder
EV Gonzalez and RS Dhindsa. European Journal of Human Genetics. (2023).

[31] Effects of protein-coding variants on blood metabolite measurements and clinical biomarkers in the UK Biobank
A Nag, RS Dhindsa, L Middleton, Xiao Jiang, D Vitsios, E Wigmore, EL Allman, A Reznichenko, K Carss, KR Smith, Q Wang, B Challis, DS Paul, AR Harper, S Petrovski. American Journal of Human Genetics. (2023).

[30] Genome-wide prediction of dominant and recessive neurodevelopmental disorder risk genes
RS Dhindsa, B Weido, JS Dhindsa, AJ Shetty, C Sands, S Petrovski, D Vitsios, AW Zoghbi. BioRxiv. (2022)

[29] A minimal role for synonymous variation in human disease
RS Dhindsa, Q Wang, D Vitsios, OS Burren, F Hu, JE DiCarlo, L Kruglyak, DG MacArthur, ME Hurles, S Petrovski. American Journal of Human Genetics. (2022).

[28] DrugnomeAI is an ensemble machine-learning framework for predicting druggability of candidate drug targets
A Raies, E Tulodziecka, J Stainer, L Middleton, RS Dhindsa, P Hill, O Engkvist, AR Harper, S Petrovski, D Vitsios. Communications Biology. (2022)

[27] Influences of rare protein-coding genetic variants on the human plasma proteome in 50,829 UK Biobank participants
RS Dhindsa*, OS Burren*, BB Sun*, BP Prins, D Matelska, E Wheeler, J Mitchell, E Oerton, VA Hristova, KR Smith, K Carss, S Wasilewski, AR Harper, DS Paul, MA Fabre, H Runz, C Viollet, B Challis, A Platt, AstraZeneca Genomics Initiative, D Vitsios, EA Ashley, CD Whelan, MN Pangalos, Q Wang, S Petrovski. BioRxiv. (2022)

[26] Human genetic evidence supports MAP3K15 as an obesity-independent therapeutic target for diabetes
A Nag*, RS Dhindsa*, J Mitchell, C Vasavda, AR Harper, et al. Science Advances. (2022)
*co-first author

[25] Identification of the NRF2 transcriptional network as a therapeutic target for trigeminal neuropathic pain
C Vasavda, R Xu, J Liew, R Kothari, RS Dhindsa, E Semenza, B Paul, et al. Science Advances. (2022).

[24] Genetic regulation of the human plasma proteome in 54,306 UK Biobank participants
B Sun, ... AstraZeneca Genomics Initiative, ..., JD Szustakowski, BW Gibson, MR Miller, CD Whelan. BioRxiv. (2022).

[23] Cancer-driving mutations are enriched in genic regions intolerant to germline variation
D Vitsios*, RS Dhindsa*, J Mitchell, D Matelska, Z Zou, J Armenia, Q Wang, B Sidders, AR Harper, S Petrovski. Science Advances. (2022).
*co-first author

TP53 protein structure

[22] Biliverdin reductase bridges focal adhesion kinase to Src to modulate synaptic signaling
C Vasavda, ER Semenza, J Liew, R Kothari, RS Dhindsa, S Shanmukha, A Lin, R Tokhunts, C Ricco, AM Snowman, LK Albacarys, F Pastore, C Ripoli, C Grassi, E Barone, MD Kornberg, X Dong, BD Paul, SH Snyder. Science Signaling. (2022).

[21] Ancestry adjustment improves genome-wide estimates of regional intolerance
T Hayeck, N Stong, E Baugh, RS Dhindsa, TN Turner, A Malakar, Y Duan, I Ionita-Laza, DB Goldstein, AS Allen. Genetics. (2022).

[20] Association of ultra-rare coding variants with genetic generalized epilepsy: A case–control whole exome sequencing study
M Koko, JE Motelow, KE Stanley, DR Bobbili, RS Dhindsa, P May, Canadian Epilepsy Network, Epi4K Consortium, Epilepsy Phenome/Genome Project, EpiPGX Consortium, EuroEPINOMICS-CoGIE Consortium. Epilepsia. (2022).

[19] High-impact rare genetic variants in severe schizophrenia
AW Zoghbi, RS Dhindsa, TE Goldberg, A Mehralizade, JE Motelow,X Wang, A Alkelai, MB Harms, JA Lieberman, S Markx. PNAS. (2021).

[18] Rare variant contribution to human disease in 281,104 UK Biobank exomes
Q Wang*, RS Dhindsa*, K. Carss*, AR Harper, A Nag, I Tachmazidou, D Vitsios, SVV Deevi, A Mackay, D Muthas, Michael Hühn, S Monkley, H Olsson, S Wasilewski, KR Smith, R March, A Platt, C Haefliger, S Petrovski. Nature. (2021).
*co-first author

Manhattan Plot

[17] Distinct gene-set burden patterns underlie common generalized and focal epilepsies
Epi25 Consortium. EBioMedicine, (2021).

[16] Sub-genic intolerance, ClinVar, and the epilepsies: A whole-exome sequencing study of 29,165 individuals
Epi25 Consortium. The American Journal of Human Genetics​, (2021).

[15] Identification of a missense variant in SPDL1 associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
RS Dhindsa, J Mattsson, A Nag, Q Wang, LV Wain, R Allen, EM Wigmore, K Ibanez, D Vitsios, SV Deevi, S Wasilewski, M Karlsson,G Lassi, H Olsson, D Muthas, S Monkley, A Mackay, L Murray, S Young, C Haefliger, FinnGen Consortium, TM Maher, MG Belvisi, G Jenkins, P Molyneaux, A Platt, S Petrovski. Communications Biology. (2021).

Manhattan Plot

[14] Prioritizing non-coding regions based on human genomic constraint and sequence context with deep learning
D Vitsios, RS Dhindsa, L Middleton, AB Gussow, S Petrovski. Nature Communications. (2021).

[13] A Transcriptome‐Based Drug Discovery Paradigm for Neurodevelopmental Disorders
RS Dhindsa, AW Zoghbi, DK Krizay, C Vasavda, DB Goldstein. Annals of Neurology. (2021).

Scientific figure

[12] TMPRSS2 Transcriptional Inhibition as a Therapeutic Strategy for COVID-19
X Wang, RS Dhindsa, G Povysil, A Zoghbi, J Motelow, J Hostyk, N Nickols, M Rettig, DB Goldstein. Preprints. (2020).

[11] Neurodevelopmental deficits and cell-type-specific transcriptomic perturbations in a mouse model of HNRNPU haploinsufficiency
SA Dugger*, RS Dhindsa*, G Sampaio, E Rafikian, S Petri, J Teoh, J Ye, S Colombo, M Yang, M Boland, W Frankel, DB Goldstein. bioRxiv. (2020).
*co-first author


[10] Natural selection shapes codon usage in the human genome
RS Dhindsa, BR Copeland, AM Mustoe, DB Goldstein. American Journal of Human Genetics. (2020).

CDF plot

[9] Ultra-rare genetic variation in the epilepsies: a whole-exome sequencing study of 17,606 individuals
Epi25 consortium. American Journal of Human Genetics. (2019).

[8] meaRtools: An R package for the analysis of neuronal networks recorded on microelectrode arrays
S Gelfman, Q Wang, Y Lu, D Hall, CD Bostick, RS Dhindsa, M Halvorsen, KM McSweeney, E Cotterill, T Edinburgh, MA Beaumont, WN Frankel, S Petrovski, AS Allen, MJ Boland, DB Goldstein, SJ Eglen. PLoS computational biology. (2018).

[7] Orion: detecting regions of the human non-coding genome that are intolerant to variation using population genetics
AB Gussow, BR Copeland, RS Dhindsa, Q Wang, S Petrovski, WH Majoros, AS Allen, DB Goldstein. PloS one. (2017).

[6] Molecular Architecture and Neurobiology of the Epilepsies
RS Dhindsa, DH Lowenstein, DB Goldstein. Genomics, Circuits, and Pathways in Clinical Neuropsychiatry. (2016).

[5] Schizophrenia: From genetics to physiology at last
RS Dhindsa, DB Goldstein. Nature. (2016).

Scientific figure

[4] Genetic Discoveries Drive Molecular Analyses and Targeted Therapeutic Options in the Epilepsies
RS Dhindsa, DB Goldstein. Current neurology and neuroscience reports. (2015).

[3] Exome sequencing results in successful riboflavin treatment of a rapidly progressive neurological condition
S Petrovski, V Shashi, S Petrou, K Schoch, KM McSweeney, RS Dhindsa, B Krueger, R Crimian, LE Case, R Khalid, MA El-Dairi, Y Jiang, MA Mikati, DB Goldstein. Molecular Case Studies. (2015).

[2] Whole-exome sequencing in undiagnosed genetic diseases: interpreting 119 trios
X Zhu, S Petrovski, P Xie, EK Ruzzo, Y Lu, KM McSweeney, B Ben-Zeev, A Nissenkorn, Y Anikster, D Oz-Levi, RS Dhindsa, Y Hitomi, K Schoch, RC Spillmann, G Heimer, D Marek-Yagel, M Tzadok, Y Han, G Worley, J Goldstein, Y Jiang, D Lancet, E Pras, V Shashi, D McHale, AC Need, DB Goldstein. Genetics in Medicine. (2015).

[1] Epileptic encephalopathy-causing mutations in DNM1 impair synaptic vesicle endocytosis.
RS Dhindsa, SS Bradrick, X Yao, EL Heinzen, S Petrovski, BJ Krueger, MR Johnson, WN Frankel, S Petrou, RM Boumil, DB Goldstein. Neurology Genetics. (2015).

Scientific figure

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